July 27 2022 0Comment
A Guide to Fire Hose Selection - June Blog

A Guide to Fire Hose Selection

When it comes to risks in the workplace, fires should always be a top concern. Not only can they be a health and safety hazard, but they can also cause massive damage to your property. That’s why it’s a must for businesses to have a suitable fire hose on hand during emergencies. 

Fire hoses are an essential part of fire fighting, so you can never be too prepared. With so many types and size options, it’s easy to get lost. Follow this guide on choosing the proper fire hose for your needs, and you’ll be well on your way to protecting your business from disasters.

 

Finding the Right Fire Hose 

You may think that finding a fire hose is as easy as going to your local hardware store and picking one up. However, there are a few things you need to keep in mind — like materials and length — when choosing one for your business. In addition, not all hoses are constructed with a specific purpose in mind, so some may not fit your needs. 

Before making hasty decisions, ask yourself these questions: 

1.) What is your purpose for buying a fire hose? 

2.) What do you need the fire hose to do? 

3.) Does the Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) have specific standards and codes that determine which hose you should use?

Contact us now if you know the specifications and model you need. Otherwise, read on to find out more.

 

Categories

The choice of fire hose is a crucial factor in the suppression of fires. We have four main categories: intake, attack, supply lines, and extinguisher. Each one has its specific purpose.

 

Attack hose

Firefighters use attack hoses to put out fires that are too dangerous or large for them to handle. These high-pressure and abrasion-resistant hoses give the firefighters power in their fight against fire while also allowing the range of movement needed when tackling these challenging situations. These lightweight, flexible devices are used where there’s no time to spare!

 

Intake Hose 

The intake hose is a vital component of any fire engine. It connects the pumper to portable pumps or other water sources. It has two types: suction hoses that draw in below-grade flow, which prevents collapsing under vacuum conditions, and soft sleeve types for transferring between the fire engine and the water source like hydrants and tankers. 

 

Extinguisher Line 

It transports extinguisher agents like gas, liquid, and powder from its container to the nozzle, where they are released. Extinguisher lines are for large extinguisher units on a vehicle. 

 

Supply Line 

Supply lines bring water from a hydrant or other pressurised source to wherever it needs to go and can be used as relays during emergencies when one pump fails. They also have fittings at both ends, so you know how to connect everything with ease.  

 

Fire Hose Materials 

  • Rubber-covered

A rubber-covered fire hose has an additional level of abrasion resistance. These fire hoses are made from synthetic nitrile rubber and can withstand the stresses of being around fuels, chemicals, or oils without breaking down. 

It’s typically used for a crash and fire rescue, municipal attack lines, and industrial construction tasks like relay pumping. Due to its durable material composition, it can handle up to 300PSI service pressure without bursting or failure.

  • Single Jacket 

A single jacket fire hose has a polyester “jacketed” layer around the interior rubber. These models are from staple and filament materials, which gives them strength in different ways. The elastic warp fibres provide durability, while weft strands keep it flexible enough for use under pressure without breaking down too quickly; this blend also resists ozone and heat.

  • Double Jacket 

The double jacket polyester construction makes this fire hose resistant to mould and rot. With a 400PSI service pressure rating, it’s ideal for use in municipal attack lines and industrial streams during disasters, a crash and fire rescue, and emergencies where high-pressure water is needed.

 

Pressure Rating

The amount of pressure water released from a fire hose is measured in pounds per square inch (PSI). A standard fire hose’s nozzle will need 100PSI, while an attack version requires high-pressure equipment with approximately 200PSI.

 

Hose Jackets

The fire hose jacket is a critical component that helps protect against external pressure and keeps it from bursting. The protective layer within the hose wraps around the liner (which cannot withstand pressure).

It has two common types: Rubber jackets and woven jackets. Woven jackets are made from nylon, polyester, and other synthetic materials. The way these threads  are woven impacts their flexibility. Each type of fabric may come in single or double-jacket styles to suit your needs. The single layer is lighter, while the double jacket will provide more durability. 

 

Diameter Variance 

This factor is essential if you want to determine the volume of water delivered. There are different hoses depending on their diameter:

  • Large Diameter Hose: The Large-Diameter Water Hose has an intimidating look, but this plumbing fixture is perfect for firefighting emergencies when you need quick relief from high pressure. The heavy-duty metal construction means these hoses can handle whatever comes their way without showing any signs or wear. 
  • Small Diameter Hose: A Small Diameter Hose’s size makes them perfect for boosting or charging through building interiors. They are used by firefighters who need to move quickly and keep their flexibility in tight spaces due to their diameter of 1 to 1.25 inches.
  • Hard Suction Hose: Hard Suction Hose, measuring 5 inches in diameter, is an innovative solution for drawing water from any source, whether portable tanks or open bodies of water. It has been designed to withstand vacuums and won’t collapse when used in this manner — making them perfect tools during emergencies. 
  • Booster Hose: A booster is mainly used for small fires, a traditional hard rubber hose with a diameter of 0.75 to 1.5 inches. 

Liner Options 

Hose linings come from four primary sources: PVC (polyvinyl chloride), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), thermoplastic, and extruded polyurethane. 

The most budget-friendly of all the liners are PVC and EPDM. These materials are applied by adhesive in the inner jacket, but they have some disadvantages, such as delamination over time. 

Thermoplastic liners offer the balance between performance and durability. They’re also applied by adhesive, and the liners are less prone to degradation. However, they have higher friction loss, which may lead them to burn through more quickly. In addition, thermoplastics aren’t able to stretch as easily.

Extruded liners have been a popular option for many years, providing some advantages over their counterparts, like a more hydraulically efficient waterway. They also have lower friction loss characteristics and are less prone to degradation since the liner is in a liquid state when placed and seals itself in the inner jacket.

 

Coating 

Hose coatings protect your hose from things like abrasion and hot embers. The most common type is a colour coating, which also gives it its distinctive look. If you desire coloured hoses, they will likely come with this protection layer already applied. With different material choices for these protective finishes, there can be significant differences in feel between brands and models. Make sure before purchasing that yours feels suitable for the task you have in mind.

 

Length 

When considering which length of hose to buy, you must take into account the type and size of your pipe. When estimating how much hose is required for emergencies, break it down into elements to get the minimum extent required. 

A standard length of 50 feet applies since this is one common measurement across many different environments and tasks; make sure your travel distances match these standards so all operators have an efficient pumping system set up on site. 

For example, the hose on a scissor staircase found in many offices will often use only one length whether to ascend or descend one flight. However, you need to take into consideration the size of the landings to determine the appropriate length to cover the areas you want. 

 

Hose Reel Specifications in Singapore 

Singapore Standards require the annual maintenance of fire hose reels. During this process, technicians will check for leakages or damaged drums that may impede firefighting efforts. In case there’s an emergency, you’ll need your equipment to be at its peak performance level.

 

Where should you install fire reels?

It is stated in Singapore’s SCD Fire Code Chapter 6 that: 

“Hose reels shall be sited in prominent and accessible locations within a distance of 5m from the exit door but not inside exit staircases. If there are parts of the floor space that are beyond the 36m coverage (30m hose path and 6m throw) of the hose reel, additional hose reels shall be provided in the common area or at a distance of not more than 5m from the exit access door of a room.”

Now that you have determined the different factors to consider when selecting a fire hose, contact a qualified supplier who can help you find the best option for your needs — like Hart Engineering Pte Ltd. 

Give us a call today and learn more about our selection of fire hoses. With the proper fire hose in place, you can be rest assured that your property’s safe from potential fires.